The second major division in Maas' classification scheme is based on the presence of foliaceous appendages on the bracts. Subgenus Costus is divided into two groups based on this characteristic. Costus with appendages on all the bracts are marked "Y". Costus without appendages or only on the lowermost bracts are marked "N". If this characteristic is unknown or variable, it is entered in the GingersRus Plant Database as "U".

EXAMPLE #1 - BRACTS WITH APPENDAGES - These are pictures of Costus species with appendaged bracts. Note that the appendages may be triangular or rounded, and they may be curved inward (recurved) or outward (reflexed). They are sometimes the same color as the bracts and sometimes are a different color.
Bracts with appendages

EXAMPLE #2 - BRACTS WITHOUT APPENDAGES - These are pictures of Costus species without appendaged bracts, or with appendages only on the lowermost bracts.
Bracts without appendages