Thumbnail Sheet for NeoTropical Costus Species

Neotropical Costus species may be divided into four artificial (morphological) groupings for ease in identification. Some species have bracts with leafy appendages, or the bracts curve outwards to give that appearance. Other species, the bracts are non-appendaged and the inflorescence forms a tight cone.

The general shape of the flowers is another character that can be used to group neotropical Costus species. In some species the labellums close around the stamens to produce a tubular type flower. Others produce flowers with a more open labellum.

The boundaries between these four artificial groupings are not always hard and fast but can provide a very useful start in identifying a species.

The thumbnails below are divided between these four groups:

  1. Appendaged bracts, Tubular flowers
  2. Appendaged bracts, Open flowers
  3. Non-appendaged bracts, Tubular flowers
  4. Non-appendaged bracts, Open flowers


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Appendaged bracts, Tubular flowers

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Costus barbatus, photo from Skinner R3213, San Jose, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 166 PID # 3074
Costus barbatus


Costus callosus, photo from Mass, M10688 DSC_0247.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 173 PID # 7471
Costus callosus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus cochabambae, photo taken by Skinner from print in voucher file. - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 177 PID # 7626
Costus cochabambae
proposed sp. nov.


Costus comosus, bakeri form, photo from Skinner R3312, collected Chiapas, Mexico - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 179 PID # 4863
Costus comosus
C. bakeri form


Costus comosus, maritimus form, photo from Skinner R3208, Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 427 PID # 4035
Costus comosus
C. maritimus form


Costus comosus, horticultural form, photo from Skinner R2947, cultivated plant, origin unknown - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 426 PID # 4035
Costus comosus
cultivated form


Costus comosus, cultivar 'Cherry Drops', photo Skinner R3308, Santa Maria de Boyaca, Colombia. - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 181 PID # 4035
Costus comosus
eastern Colombia


Costus comosus, Panama bicarinate bracteole form, photo from Skinner R3500, Fortuna area, Panama - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 429 PID # 4035
Costus comosus
Panama form


Costus curpreifolius, photo from Skinner R3462, at type locality Putumayo, Colombia - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 193 PID # 4603
Costus cupreifolius


Costus curvibracteatus, photo from Skinner, taken at Rio Purisil, Cartago, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 195 PID # 4317
Costus curvibracteatus


Costus juruanus 'Ruffles' plicate leaf form, photo from Skinner R3434, from Peru, Puno - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 232 PID # 3789
Costus juruanus


Costus lima, photo from Skinner at Rio Barrigones, Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 253 PID # 3435
Costus lima


Costus montanus, photo from Skinner R2972, from Lancester Gardens, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 263 PID # 3756
Costus montanus


Costus osae showing inflorescence and, photo from Skinner, cultivated plant - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 274 PID # 3516
Costus osae


Costus ricus, photo from Reinaldo Aguilar, Osa Penincula of Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 296 PID # 4867
Costus ricus


Appendaged bracts, Open flowers

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Costus guanaiensis (new description based on type), photo from Skinner R3263, from Manu Learning Centret, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 224 PID # 7624
Costus guanaiensis
(as newly det.)


Costus asplundii, photo from Skinner, Putumayo, Colombia - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 162 PID # 3595
Costus asplundii


Costus bracteatus, photo from Skinner R3361, Nusigandi, Guna Yala, Panama - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 170 PID # 3752
Costus bracteatus


Costus claviger, photo from Maas,  PM 2017 DSC_0477.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 176 PID # 4047
Costus claviger


Costus erythrophyllus, photo from Maas,  Jana DSC08320.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 206 PID # 3431
Costus erythrophyllus


Costus gibbosus, photo from Skinner R3012, at Waimea Gardens, Hawaii, 74S2037 grown from Plowman collection - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 218 PID # 7787
Costus gibbosus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus laevis f/k/a guanaiensis var. tarmicus - photo by Skinner, from near La Merced, Dept Junin, Peru<br> believed to be consistent with TYPE<br>Form 1, all glabrous, patent bracts, acutely triangular - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 392 PID # 3601
Costus laevis
(as newly det.)


Costus leucanthus, photo from Maas 1920 COL U0999377.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 249 PID # 3603
Costus leucanthus


Costus longibracteolatus, photo from Maas, a_ec_413.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 254 PID # 4006
Costus longibracteolatus


Costus macrostrobilus, from Bahia Solano, Choco, Colombia<br>Form 1 - succulent appendage, concave, pungent apex - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 26 PID # 3433
Costus macrostrobilus


Costus mollissimus, photo from Maas, PM U 2016 DSC_0230.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 260 PID # 7631
Costus mollissimus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus obscurus, photo from Skinner R3322, Pantiacolla Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 267 PID # 7830
Costus obscurus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus pitalito, photo from Bruce Dunham - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 283 PID # 7790
Costus pitalito
proposed sp. nov.


Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Acre, Brazil, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 55 PID # 6152
Costus sinningiiflorus


Costus sp. nov. Chambi1098, Skinner R3431, photos at Quincemil, Cusco, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 304 PID # 7640
Costus sp. Chambi
proposed sp. nov.


Costus varzearum, photo from Maas, Jana DSC00305a - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 327 PID # 3108
Costus varzearum


Costus villossissimus, photo by Skinner in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional La Cangreja - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 329 PID # 3354
Costus villosissimus


Non-appendaged bracts, Tubular flowers

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Costus Fuentes (species name pending), photo from Maas,  Bolivia Fuentes 6216 - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 214 PID # 7789
Costus alfredoi
proposed sp. nov.


Costus alticolus, photo from Skinner R3400, Oaxaca, Mexico - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 155 PID # 7622
Costus alticolus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus asteranthus, photo from Maas 6086 Peru U0999151 - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 164 PID # 4870
Costus asteranthus


Costus beckii, photo from Skinner R3392, Villa Tunari area, Cochabamba, Bolivia - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 168 PID # 4871
Costus beckii


Costus chartaceus, photo from Skinner R2708, cultivated plant from USBRG - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 175 PID # 4065
Costus chartaceus


Costus cordatus, photo from Maas,  M10658 DSC_0177.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 192 PID # 4605
Costus cordatus


Costus dalyi, photo from Skinner R3482, grown from seeds - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 577 PID # 7780
Costus dalyi


Costus erythrocoryne, photo from Maas, Gerlach ECU ec17_0924 .jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 201 PID # 4608
Costus erythrocoryne


Costus erythrothyrsus, photo from Skinner, taken at Burgers Bush, Netherlands - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 207 PID # 4111
Costus erythrothyrsus


Costus fissilicalyx, photos from Laura Clavijo - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 209 PID # 7503
Costus fissicalyx


Costus geothyrsus, photo from Bertil Stahl at type locality Cerro Semama, Ecuador - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 216 PID # 4609
Costus geothyrsus


Costus lasius, photo from Skinner R3127, from Yagua Urco Mirano, Loreto, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 245 PID # 3602
Costus lasius


Costus nitidus, photo from Skinner R3088, from Lim+┬Žn, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 265 PID # 4607
Costus nitidus


Costus plicatus, photo from Skinner R3211, from Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 286 PID # 4606
Costus plicatus


Costus plowmanii, photo from Maas, JB14570 PPNOrq Calles MG 5604.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 287 PID # 3838
Costus plowmanii


Costus prancei (former aff. sprucei), photo from Maas,  P12265 U0999652.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 310 PID # 7843
Costus prancei
proposed sp. nov.


Costus pseudosprialis, photo from Skinner, Acre, Brazil - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 290 PID # 7757
Costus pseudospiralis
proposed sp. nov.


Costus pulverulentus, Central American form, photo from Panama Veraguas - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 291 PID # 3353
Costus pulverulentus


Costus rubineus, photo from Skinner R3421 from Oaxapampa, Pasco, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 298 PID # 7633
Costus rubineus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus scaber, photo from Skinner R3384 from type locality in Huanuco, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 300 PID # 3607
Costus scaber


Costus spicatus, photo from Skinner R3385,  Dominica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 307 PID # 3225
Costus spicatus


Costus spiralis, photo from Skinner R3218,  Guyana - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 309 PID # 2372
Costus spiralis


Costus stenophyllus, flower detail,  photo by Skinner in La Gamba area, Puntarenas, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 357 PID # 3227
Costus stenophyllus


Costus vargasii, Photo from Maas, K5293 f-HKennedy U0999700 - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 322 PID # 3758
Costus vargasii


Costus weberbauri, photo by Skinner in habitat at type locality, near La Merced, Junin, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 335 PID # 7629
Costus weberbaueri


Costus wilsonii, Skinner R3092, from Parque Nacional La Amistad, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 340 PID # 4049
Costus wilsonii


Costus woodsonii at Burgers Bush, photo by Paul Maas - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 341 PID # 3695
Costus woodsonii


Costus zingiberoides, photo by Skinner, cultivated as R3406, plant collected by Maas in Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 351 PID # 3759
Costus zingiberoides


Non-appendaged bracts, Open flowers

Click on a thumbnail image to view a full size image.
Click on the SPECIES NAME to read about the plant and see more photos of that species.
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Costus acreanus, photo from Skinner R3486, from Rio Tarauaca, Acre, Brazil - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 22 PID # 7773
Costus acreanus


Costus allenii, photo from Skinner R3350, from Gamboa, Panama - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 153 PID # 3351
Costus allenii


Costus alleniopsis, photo from Skinner R3498, Panama, Veraguas - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 154 PID # 7299
Costus alleniopsis
proposed sp. nov.


Costus amazonicus, photo from Skinner R3198, Rio Pastaza, Ecuador - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 157 PID # 3216
Costus amazonicus


Costus antioquensis, photo from Maas, PM BB 2017 DSC_0566.JPG - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 159 PID # 7623
Costus antioquiensis
proposed sp. nov.


Costus arabicus, photo from Skinner R3124, Rio Mazon, Loreto, Peru - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 161 PID # 3594
Costus arabicus


Costus spiralis, C. atlanticus form 'Tropicais', photo from Skinner R2907, cultivated plant from Brazil - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 308 PID # 7791
Costus atlanticus


Costus convexus, photo from Skinner, taken in Putumayo, Colombia - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 187 PID # 7537
Costus convexus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus dirzoi, terminal inflorescence, photo from Skinner R3448, at type locality Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 198 PID # 3725
Costus dirzoi


Costus glaucus ligule, photo from Skinner R3363, collected in Costa Rica at type locality CATIE - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 221 PID # 3599
Costus glaucus


Costus krukovii, photo from Maas, by Robin Foster, 7676 RF.jpg - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 235 PID # 4862
Costus krukovii


Costus kuntzei, Pacific side form, photo from Skinner R3086, from Reserva Durika, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 240 PID # 6111
Costus kuntzei


Costus malortieanus, photo from Skinner R1562,  cultivated plant - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 257 PID # 3217
Costus malortieanus


Costus oreophilus, photo from Skinner,  Old Loja Road-Ecuador inflorescence - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 269 PID # 7592
Costus oreophilus
proposed sp. nov.


Costus pictus, photo from Skinner R3172, planta insulina form - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 437 PID # 3075
Costus pictus
Atlantic form


Costus pictus, red flowering form 'Red Baron', photo from Skinner R3295, from Puntarenas, Costa Rica - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 438 PID # 3075
Costus pictus
Pacific form


Costus sepacuitensis, photo from Skinner R3443, at type locality Sepacuite, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 301 PID # 5231
Costus sepacuitensis


Costus vinosus, photo by John Mood, plant from Waimea Arboretum, Hawaii - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 332 PID # 3839
Costus vinosus


Costus zamoranus, photo by Skinner in habitat, Rio Numbala, Chinchipe valley, Ecuador - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 343 PID # 4602
Costus zamoranus