This page contains photos and description of a species, form or cultivar of Costaceae.

Gingersrus Database Taxon ID 6152

Costus sinningiiflorus


OLD NAME: Costus guanaiensis var. guanaiensis

NEW NAME: Costus sinningiiflorus

NAME CHANGE NOTES: The C. guanaiensis complex is split into 4 species and the former var. guanaiensis is changed to Costus sinningiiflorus due to misinterpretation of the type specimen from Guanay, Bolvia.

FULL SCIENTIFIC NAME: Costus sinningiiflorus Rusby

STATUS : stat. nov.

CONTINENT: Neotropical

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FIELD OBSERVATIONS

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SYNONYMS:


BOTANICAL NOTES:
Costus guanaiensis is another of the species that will be completely changed when our revision to new world Costaceae has been published. As was the case with Costus laevis, the type specimen for Costus guanaiensis was incorrectly interpreted. All the varieties of that species as it was formerly known will have new names, and the species name Costus guanaiensis will be applied to an entirely different group of plants. A full explanation of these changes can be found at http://gingersrus.com/Costus_guanaiensis_changes_explained.pdf. It is proposed for publication in 2022 to apply the name Costus guanaiensis to a different species and to separate the former varieties into discrete species. The former var. guanaiensis to be changed to Costus sinningiiflorus.

The type specimen for Costus sinningiiflorus was collected near Rurrenabaque, Bolivia in 1921 by M. Cardenas (No. 1851) as part of the Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin. The holotype is at New York Botanical Garden and is a very nice specimen, clearly showing the appendaged bracts, dense hairs and open-labellum flower that are characteristics of the plants that were formerly known as Costus guanaiensis var. guanaiensis. Where the story of this species really gets interesting is when Rusby wrote his description of the species in 1927. Rusby even expressed some uncertainty of whether it really belonged to the genus Costus because, he said, the specimen had TWO STAMENS in the flower! Rusby wrote: "In habit and form of flower, the plant is a perfect Costus, but its stamen-characters mark it as a distinct genus, which I can scarcely describe from such scanty material.". The name he gave this species was Costus sinningiaeflorus, corrected to a proper Latin name, it is Costus sinningiiflorus. After studying hundreds of plants that clearly belong to this species I have never seen any with two stamens, so Rusby's anomaly cannot be explained.

During our discussion of the Costus guanaiensis complex, we considered 12 different forms for classification either as separate species or as variations within a species. Dr. Maas had already decided to change the three formal varieties (var. guanaiensis, var. macrostrobilus, and var. tarmicus) into separate species. After consideration of some of the forms that varied from the Bolivian type specimen of Costus sinningiiflorus, it was decided to include several other forms that either (1) varied somewhat in the shape of the inflorescence and bract appendages, (2) tended to flower on separate, leafless or near leafless shoots - ie. basal flowering, or (3) were geographically separated from all the others - the Tapantí form. All the forms with dense brown hairs will be included in Costus sinningiiflorus until further research indicates that they should be separate species. For now, at least, all the plants that were formerly included in Costus guanaiensis var. guanaiensis will be included in Costus sinningiiflorus when the revision is published.

All but the "Tapantí" form are found in the Amazonian regions of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and western Brazil. There is no clear seasonal pattern for flowering, and it can be found in flower year round.

The type form is characterized by bract appendages that are broadly triangular, very much "leafy looking" and have an undulating surface (not flat or smooth). In living plants, it is typified by the plants I have seen in the far south of Peru (Madre de Dios and Puno) and also in western Brazil. The bract appendages often have a longitudinal indentation or crease.

Another form that is to be included in this species is found in the Tingo Maria area of Huanuco, Peru. It usually forms a basal inflorescence on a separate leafless shoot. The inflorescence shape is globular and the bract appendages are tightly closed forming a ball in the living plants.

The Tapantí form from Costa Rica also has tightly closed bract appendages, but it is much taller, growing to 4 meters tall, and has only been found with terminal inflorescences on the tall leafy shoots.

The molecular phylogeny that will accompany the final revision when published, is only partially complete at this writing and only includes two specimens as examples of C. sinningiiflorus - a plant of unknown origin with the cultivar name 'Sweet Charlotte' and a specimen from Pasco, Peru where there are many different forms of the former C. guanaiensis complex, and we have not seen the living plant of this specimen in order to determine the form. These two specimens were well separated from the other two former varieties ( var. macrostrobilus and var. tarmicus) but further sampling is needed from a verified type form and from other forms currently lumped into this species name.

HORTICULTURAL NOTES:
This species is not common in cultivation, but I have distributed two registered cultivars that will be included under this new name. Costus 'Sweet Charlotte' was received from the University of North Carolina (at Charlotte) and they obtained the plant from an orchid grower in Orlando, Florida, so the origin is not known. It is similar to the plants found near Tingo Maria, Huanuco, Peru. Costus 'Emerald Crinkles' was collected near Iguitos.

ACCESSIONS:Click links (if any) to see details of individual collections. R3222- R3259- R3380- R3395- R3410- R3426- R3428- R3438- R3478- R3491-


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Photos (if available) of Taxon ID 6152
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Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 91 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus sinningiiflorus type specimen - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 529 Accession# R0
Costus sinningiiflorus type specimen


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, plant with brown hairs form Reserva Fortuna, Chiriqui, Panama, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 115 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, plant with brown hairs form Reserva Fortuna, Chiriqui, Panama, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, in PNTapanti, Cartago, Costa Rica, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 113 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, in PNTapanti, Cartago, Costa Rica, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, in PNTapanti, Cartago, Costa Rica, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 111 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, in PNTapanti, Cartago, Costa Rica, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Pampa Hermosa Rd, Dept Junin, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 109 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Pampa Hermosa Rd, Dept Junin, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Pampa Hermosa Rd, Dept Junin, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 107 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Pampa Hermosa Rd, Dept Junin, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 105 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 103 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 101 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 99 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, from Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 97 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 95 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 93 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, observed in Oxapampa Province, Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Acre, Brazil, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 55 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Acre, Brazil, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 61 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 59 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Dept Pasco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Acre, Brazil, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 57 Accession# R0
Costus aff sinningiiflorus in Acre, Brazil, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, cultivar 'Emerald Chalice', Skinner R3123 - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 75 Accession# R3123
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, cultivar 'Emerald Chalice', Skinner R3123


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, cultivar 'Emerald Chalice', Skinner R3123 - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 71 Accession# R3123
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, cultivar 'Emerald Chalice', Skinner R3123


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 88 Accession# R3380
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 85 Accession# R3380
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 82 Accession# R3380
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 79 Accession# R3380
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3380, from Dept Huanuco, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3428  LPAC, Madre de Dios, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 69 Accession# R3428
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3428 LPAC, Madre de Dios, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3428  LPAC, Madre de Dios, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 67 Accession# R3428
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3428 LPAC, Madre de Dios, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3438 from San Gabon, Dept Puno, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 65 Accession# R3438
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3438 from San Gabon, Dept Puno, Peru, photo by Skinner


Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3438 from San Gabon, Dept Puno, Peru, photo by Skinner - Click to see full sized image
Photo# 63 Accession# R3438
Costus aff sinningiiflorus, Skinner R3438 from San Gabon, Dept Puno, Peru, photo by Skinner