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Datasheet for Dimerocostus argenteus

Plant Datasheet for Dimerocostus argenteus


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Photo# 12854 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Waimea Audubon Center, Oahu, Hawaii #75S152


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Photo# 12855 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Waimea Audubon Center, Oahu, Hawaii #75S152


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Photo# 12856 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Waimea Audubon Center, Oahu, Hawaii #75S152


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Photo# 12857 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Waimea Audubon Center, Oahu, Hawaii #75S152


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Photo# 12858 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Waimea Audubon Center, Oahu, Hawaii #75S152 ligules


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Photo# 17460 Specimen# R3283
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated,


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Photo# 17450 Specimen# R3283
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated,


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Photo# 17452 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17430 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17449 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17470 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17454 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17448 Specimen# R3018
Dimerocostus argenteus
From cultivated, from Tim Plowman 1975, Peru, Ayacucho/La Mar


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Photo# 17622 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17623 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17624 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17625 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17626 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17627 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17628 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at type locality, Chinchao, Huanuco, Peru


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Photo# 17629 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - ligule


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Photo# 17630 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - bracts wrap around inflorescence


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Photo# 17631 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - bracts wrap around inflorescence


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Photo# 17632 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - bracteole and calyx


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Photo# 17633 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - flower


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Photo# 17634 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - flower


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Photo# 17635 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - corolla lobes and labellum


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Photo# 17636 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - stamen and labellum


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Photo# 17637 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chinchao - labellum


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Photo# 17638 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Villa La Gloria - showing silvery undersides to leaves


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Photo# 17639 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Villa La Gloria - showing silvery undersides to leaves


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Photo# 17640 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Villa La Gloria - ligule


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Photo# 17641 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus with HUMMINGBIRDat Chacahuassi


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Photo# 17642 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus, north side of river at Chacahuassi (area bellow Huassipampa)


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Photo# 17643 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus at Chacahuassi showing silvery underside of leaf


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Photo# 17644 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Simon Bolivar


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Photo# 17645 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Simon Bolivar, this is form with stiff hairs around ligules


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Photo# 17646 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17647 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul, showing silvery undersides to leaves


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Photo# 17648 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17649 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul, this is the form with stiff hairs around the ligules


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Photo# 17650 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17651 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17652 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17653 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul


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Photo# 17654 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along road to Divisoria/Rio Azul - showing ligule detail


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Photo# 17655 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17656 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17657 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17658 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17659 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17660 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17661 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel


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Photo# 17662 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - silvery undersides to leaves


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Photo# 17663 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - base of inflorescence, showing wrap-around bracts.


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Photo# 17664 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - base of inflorescence, showing wrap-around bracts.


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Photo# 17665 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - base of inflorescence, showing wrap-around bracts.


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Photo# 17666 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - flower parts


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Photo# 17667 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - bracts


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Photo# 17668 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - bracteole and calyx


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Photo# 17669 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - flower


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Photo# 17670 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - flower parts


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Photo# 17671 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - flower parts


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Photo# 17672 Specimen# R0
Dimerocostus argenteus along trail to Catarata San Miguel - flower


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Photo# 17928 Specimen# R3376
Dimerocostus argenteus
From Peru, Huanuco


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Photo# 17929 Specimen# R3376
Dimerocostus argenteus
From Peru, Huanuco


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Photo# 17930 Specimen# R3376
Dimerocostus argenteus
From Peru, Huanuco



PLANT FAMILY: Costaceae
BOTANICAL NAME: Dimerocostus argenteus
FORMAL SCIENTIFIC NAME: Dimerocostus argenteus (Ruiz & Pav.) Maas
STATUS :Accepted
CONTINENT: Neotropical
SYNONYMS:
Costus argenteus Ruiz & Pav. (1798), Dimerocostus gutierrezii Kuntze (1898), Dimerocostus strobilaceus Kuntze subsp. gutierrezii (Kuntze) Maas (1972), Costus mooreanus Rusby (1907), Mulfordia boliviana Rusby (1928), Dimerocostus bicolor J.F.Macbr. (1930),

BOTANICAL NOTES:
Dimerocostus argenteus was first collected and described as Costus argenteus by Ruiz & Pavon in the late 1700's. The type specimen was collected at a place called Chinchao in present-day Department Huanuco, Peru in 1778. Ruiz described it 20 years later in 1798 in his Flora Peruviana. In 2016 I visited Chinchao and found the species still growing there, and I photographed it there. My field observations can be found at the link above.

D. argenteus is distinguished from other Dimerocostus species by the silvery undersides of the leaves, for which it is named. It is also one of the species of Dimerocostus that produces bract appendages, but the appendages are not persistent, but soon decay and often leave a plant that looks to be non-appendaged. In some plants the upper bract appendages are still intact but the lower ones are decayed. The other distinctive character of D. argenteus is the flower shape, with a small labellum whose edges are curled and with a long upper corolla lobe that forms a hood. The flowers are usually pale yellow in color.

During my field observations of many plants of this species, I found that there is a great deal of variation. Many of the plants, expecially at lower elevations, tend to have a ring of long stiff hairs around the ligules. In some plants the bract appendages are almost completely gone, but in others they they are large and persistent.

In the past this species has been confused with the Dimerocostus found in southern Bolivia that were previously known as Dimerocostus strobilaceus subspecies gutierrezii, first collected by Otto Kuntz in 1892 and described in 1898 as Dimerocostus gutierrezii. I visited the type locality of this Kuntz collection in 2017 and discovered that all the Dimerocostus in that region had silvery undersides to the leaves and produced a hooded flower form with a small labellum. The type specimen was very poor and had been misinterpreted, so that species gutierrezii (and the subspecies gutierrezii) are now considered to be synonyms of D. argenteus. The primary difference I found in the plants growing in southern Bolivia was that the upper bracts were large and persistent.

A molecular phylogeny in 2020 at Cornell University included 12 samples from Dimerocostus including two presumed D. argenteus - one from the type locality in Peru and the other from southern Bolivia near the type locality of D. gutierrezii. It was found that the two samples were in separate well-supported clades, but in very close lineages and well separated from the other presumed species. Whether these various forms should be split into separate taxa is a question for future research.

ACCESSION NOTES:
A thumbnail page showing photos of a plant from Waimea Arboretum can be found at http://www.gingersrus.com/images/P3310 . This is Waimea #75S152 - Per notes at Waimea, they received seed from Tim Plowman in 1975, collected in Peru, Dept Ayacucho, Province La Mar, San Francisco, Rio Apurimar, alt 1900 ft. Det'd by Maas in 1975, also John Mood 1990. Note that this plant matches much more closely to the illustration of D. strobilaceus subsp. appendiculatus, but it was det'd by Maas to be D. argenteus. The illustration has very short bract appendages, but the written description is for bract appendages 10-45 mm long - a fairly wide range. This plant also has a cordate base to the bract appendages, as described by Maas. The undersides of the leaves of this specimen have a somewhat silvery texture.

There is a plant sold by Plant Group Hawaii under the name D. argenteus 'Kolas', origin unknown (but probably from Madre de Dios, Peru). The stems of this plant have a strong tendency to branch and it does not have the long stiff hairs around the ligules as in the Waimea plant. It does have the hooded flower form, but the undersides to the leaves are not especially silvery, so I am unsure whether this is really the species D. argenteus. There are photos of it at https://www.plantgrouphawaii.com/product-page/dimerocostus-argentia-kolas.

I have grown both of these cultivated plants and also have grown from seeds two of my own collections, R3376 from near the Peru type locality and R3388 from near the Bolivia type locality of D. gutierrezii.


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